雅思阅读提升系列
2019-01-31 14:41 | 编辑:川外外语培训中心  来自:未知 
导读:主谓一致在雅思填空题中的应用 主谓一致是很多同学在中学时期听过的一个语法概念。所谓主谓一致,就是主语的形式必须和谓语的形式必须要保持一致。 主语的形式大体上分有三种:可数名词单数,可数名词复数和不可数名词。 谓语动词的形式相对复杂,可分为be动
主谓一致”在雅思填空题中的应用
 
主谓一致是很多同学在中学时期听过的一个语法概念。所谓‘主谓一致’,就是主语的形式必须和谓语的形式必须要保持一致。
 
主语的形式大体上分有三种:可数名词单数,可数名词复数和不可数名词。
谓语动词的形式相对复杂,可分为be动词(单数和复数),实意动词(单数和复数),和助动词(单数和复数)。下面我们通过几个雅思常考词汇来认识一下这些概念:
 
 三种“主语”
1)可数名词单数:whale ,volcano , opinion , fact , mistake , program 等等
2)可数名词复数:whales ,volcanoes , opinions , facts , mistakes , programs 等等
3)不可数名词:liquid ,suggestion , information , behavior , stability 等等
 
 六种“谓语”
1)be动词单数:is , was, has been
2)be动词复数:are ,were , have been
3)实意动词单数:illustrates ,varies , suggests , instructs , grants 等等
4)实意动词复数:illustrate ,vary , suggest , instruct , grant 等等
5)助动词单数:does , doesn’t, has , hasn’t
6)助动词复数:do , don’t ,have , haven’t
 
按照‘主谓一致’法则,主语是可数名词复数,谓语动词应选择2),4)或6)三种情况;主语是可数名词单数或不可数名词,谓语动词应选择1), 3) , 5) 三种情况。
 
 
下面我们来通过几道雅思的填空题,看看‘主谓一致’的法则到底好不好用?
 
例1:Day length in a useful cue for breeding in areas where ______ areunpredictable .
译文:在一个_____ 不可预知的地区,昼长是一个有用的线索。
 
Step 1 : where … are unpredictable 是一个定语从句,修饰前面的areas, 句中的谓语动词用的是are , 所以推断出主语应该是一个名词复数。
 
Step2: 通过关键词Day length , cue,和breeding 我们定位到了下面这句话,即使我们不认识这些关键词(当然最好是都认识),我们也知道含有关键词多的句子一定是答案的出处。
Breeding in most organismsoccurs during a part of the year only, and so a reliable cue isneeded to trigger breeding behaviour. Day length is an excellentcue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern ofchange within the year. In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuategreatly from day to day, but day length increases steadily by a predictableamount.
 
Step3: 这句话中有这样几个加‘s’的单词,有可能是我们要找的答案。
occurs (动词三单,排除) , provides (动词三单,排除) , increases (动词三单,排除) ,只有temperatures (名词复数) 是符合答案要求的,所以答案就是temperatures 温度。
 
刚才的做题环节中我并没有去刻意的理解句子意思,只是靠名词复数就能够把答案作对。所以主谓一致这条技巧对于解出这道题来说是至关重要的。(当然分清名词复数和动词三单也很重要哦!)
 
例2:The sense of smell may involve response to _______ which do notsmell , in addition to obvious odours .
 
response to + 名词复数/不可数名词, 但是后面跟的定语从句中的谓语部分是donot , 有词课推出前面的名词是复数。
 
根据关键词sense of smell , response to 和do not smell , 我们定位到了下面这句话:Researchershave still to decide whether smell is one sense or two – one respondingto odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in theair . 这句话中的复数名词只有一个chemicals 化学物质,所以答案就填chemicals .
 
例3:
 
18题的谓语部分是disappear , 所以主语应该是一个名词复数
19题的谓语部分是attract , 所以主语应该是一个名词复数。
20题的定语从句部分的谓语是absorb , 所以前面所修饰的名词应该是一个名词复数
 
在准确地判断出词性之后我们只需要在还有关键词的句子里找到加‘s’的名词复数即可,及时你并不能看懂整句话到底在说些什么。
 
Q18: Usually , as they swim , they makeclicking noises and the resulting sound waves are reflected in an echo andtravel back to them . However , these just fade out on shallow beaches , so thewhale doesn’t hear an echo and it crashes onto the shore .
 
Q19: To put it more simply , she says , inthe years when strong westerly and southerly winds bring cool water rich  in nutrients closer to the Australiacoast , there is an increase in the number of fish . The whales follow .
 
Q20: The ocean is full of bubbles. Largerones rise quickly to the surface and disappear, whilst smaller ones – called microbubbles – can last for days . It is these that absorb whale ‘clicks’.
 
通过以上几个例子,我们不难发现,对于基础不是很好,不能够看懂整句话意思的同学,准确的判断出名词复数可以大大减少干扰项的误导,从而更准确的排除错误答案,而每次阅读考试40道题里有大约10道题都是填空题,而填空题中有将近三分之一的空都是名词复数,这部分题可以被我们看做是‘送分题’,无论你的目标分数是5.5 ,还有6.5及以上,这3,4分对大家来说都是非常重要的,大家可以在接下来的训练中有意识的去注意名词复数的答案。
 
下面附上几道答案是名词复数的填空题,大家自己分析一下为何是填名词复数吧!
1. Cam 12 – Test 7 – P2 – Q22 :
Disease- causing ______ are most likely tobe found in hot , damp regions .
 
2. Cam 12 – Test 8 – P1 – Q 3 :
 _______ made of stone were covered in acoating of man-made glass .
 
3. Cam 11 – Test 3 – P1 – Q3+Q4 :
Only ______ were allowed to producesilk.  Only _____ were allowed to wearsilk .
 
4. Cam11 – Test 3 – P1 – Q8 :
______ hide silkworm eggs in canes and takethem to Constantinople .
 
5. Cam 11 – Test2 – P1 – Q10 :
_______ prevent hull being sucked into mud.
 
6. Cam11 – Test 1 – P2 – Q26 :
_____ raise boat 11 m to level of UnionCanal .
 
7. Cam 8 – Test 1 – P3 – Q36 :
______ were used for key tasks to limit theamount of ______ in carrying out the tests .
 
8. Cam7 – Test 2 – P2 – Q22
Professor Pretty concludes that our ______are higher than most people realize .
 
9. Cam 7 – Test 1 – P1 – Q 11
Radar is an inaccurate term when referringto bats because _______ are not used in their navigation system .
 
10. Cam 6 – Test 1 – P3 – Q37
The territory of Nunavut consists of littlemore than ice , rock and a few _____ .

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